The British captured Tobruk from the Italians in January 1941. Siege of Tobruk. The Australian 9th Division and the British 2nd Armoured Division (Major-General Michael Gambier-Parry), minus a brigade group sent to Greece, were left to garrison Cyrenaica under Cyrenaica Command (Cyrcom: Lieutenant-General Henry Maitland Wilson), despite the inadequacy of the force if the Germans sent reinforcements to Libya. The Mediterranean Fleet was busy elsewhere, the Inshore Squadron was carrying supplies into Tobruk and Operation Crusader was being prepared. On 22 November, Scobie ordered the position to be consolidated and the corridor widened, ready for the Eighth Army. As night fell the British tanks disengaged and the New Zealand Division, fighting at the south-east end of the corridor into Tobruk, was endangered by the Afrika Korps. [47], The Tobruk garrison continued work on the defences and sowed minefields, the first being planted in the south-west, between the outer and inner perimeters. [30] He requested Tedder's advice. Series 1 – Army. This item is available to borrow from 1 library branch. [23] In support, the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica flew 959 sorties over Tobruk; on 14 April 40 Ju 87s bombed the defences and on day 27 they succeeded in destroying a heavy anti-aircraft battery at Tobruk by swamping the defences with 50 aircraft allowing for an entire staffel (12) to concentrate on each gun. The Break In,At 9:40pm Egyptian time on the 23rd of October an a thousand gun barrage went on for twenty minutes and this lead to a total of 529,000 shells being fired by the end. Other reports led Neame to countermand these orders, which caused the Australians much confusion. Bloomsbury Publishing, Jan 20, 2013 - History - 96 pages. [72], In the British Official History (1956), Playfair calculated the losses in the table created by Harrison in 1999. Battle of El Alamein Three major battles took place around El Alamein, Egypt between July and November 1942, with the Australian 9th division playing a key role in two of these battles. 30 July 2017. The occupation of Tobruk deprived the Axis of a supply port closer to the Egypt–Libya border than Benghazi, 560 mi (900 km) west of the Egyptian frontier, which was within the range of RAF bombers; Tripoli was 930 mi (1,500 km) to the west in Tripolitania. Gambier-Parry and 2,700–3,000 British, Indian and Australian troops surrendered to the 17th Infantry Division Pavia (General Pietro Zaglio). [48], The attack came in the area held by the 26th Australian Brigade, which had the 2/23rd and 2/24th battalions in the line and the 2/48th Battalion in reserve at Wadi Giaida. 3“Battle Of El Alamein – World War II – HISTORY.Com.” HISTORY.com. The battle of El Alamein and the siege were both key events of World War Two. The allied forces lost 332 to 500 tanks,13,560 men,11 guns and 97 aircraft. Men of the 2nd Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment in defences around Tobruk, 10 November 1941. But persisting the allied forces made another thrust which was a success. [71] In Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (1967) the Australian Official History, Maughan recorded 9th Australian Division casualties from 8 April – 25 October, including two days before the siege started, as 746 killed, 1,996 wounded, 604 prisoners, that 507 Australians were captured between 28 March 1941 and the investment of Tobruk and 467 more were taken during the siege. The gunners spread their fire from side to side, to prevent German pilots from travelling down the side of the barrage and sliding in underneath it. [44], The Bardia raid was planned for the night of 19/20 April, by 'A' Battalion, Layforce to disrupt Axis lines of communication and damage installations and equipment. Command in Egypt was taken over by Lieutenant-General Richard O'Connor and the XIII Corps HQ was replaced by the HQ of the 1st Australian Corps (Lieutenant-General Thomas Blamey). Tobruk and El Alamein (Australia in the war of 1939-1945) | Barton Maughan | download | B–OK. [1] Scorpions, vipers and flies populated the region, which was inhabited by a small number of nomads. [33] JG 27 suffered the loss of four fighters, three damaged and three pilots killed. 4 Your Bibliography: Memorial, T. (2017). [online] Awm.gov.au. The Battle of El Alamein (Arabic:معركة العلمين) was a battle during the Western Desert Campaign fought in 1942.A crucial battle between the weakened German forces and the resurgent British, the battle marked a major turning point in the campaign, ending Axis hopes of occupying Egypt, taking control of the Suez Canal, and gaining access to the Middle Eastern oil fields. Benghazi was captured in April but coastal shipping could only carry 15,000 long tons (15,241 t) and the port was within range of the DAF. German casualties were 258 men, three tanks destroyed and several damaged. In November, a five-ship convoy was sunk during Operation Crusader and ground attacks on road convoys stopped journeys in daylight. III/StG 1 and II/StG 2 lost eight between them while III/ZG 26 reported three destroyed and one damaged, two killed, one wounded and three captured. Twelve infantry tanks had been delivered among 5,000 long tons (5,100 t) of supplies landed during the month, despite Axis bombing of the harbour and the sinking of two supply ships. Rommel thought that Tobruk could only be taken by a deliberate attack, which could not begin until support units had arrived in the area and the Luftwaffe had been reinforced, particularly with transport aircraft to carry ammunition, fuel and water. In late 1940, the Allies had defeated the Italian 10th Army during Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941) and trapped the remnants at Beda Fomm. Extending inland from the coast lies a raised, flat plain of stony desert, about 500 ft (150 m) above sea level, for 120–190 mi (200–300 km) to the sand sea. Directed by Guido Malatesta. The port was frequently bombarded by artillery, dive-bombers and medium bombers, as the RAF flew defensive sorties from airfields far away in Egypt. The Allies had 969 casualties, 27 cruiser and 64 Infantry tanks were knocked out or broke down and lost; the RAF lost 36 aircraft. Pier Paolo Battistelli. The next day, the port was invested; but the rush ended with the 5th Light Division on the east side, the Prittwitz group to the south (Prittwitz having been killed), and the 27th Infantry Division Brescia to the west. The Commandos destroyed an Italian supply dump and a coastal artillery battery before re-embarking. Two battalions of the Australian 24th Infantry Brigade and the newly arrived Australian 18th Brigade (which had been detached from the 7th Division) took over the perimeter and the Australian 20th and 26th brigades took up a covering position on the outside until 9 April, while more work was done on the defences. British General Montgomery spent months building up an overwhelming advantage in … On 7 December, the 4th Armoured Brigade engaged 15th Panzer Division and knocked out eleven tanks. Tobruk and El Alamein di Maughan, Barton su AbeBooks.it - ISBN 10: 0002175495 - ISBN 13: 9780002175494 - Intl Specialized Book Services - 1987 - Rilegato Second Battle of El Alamein. By 9:30 p.m., the Germans made a small bridgehead as planned but several Australian posts held out, the reconnaissance party vanished and the Italian troops were not able to reach their objectives. [33], The intensity of the battle for air superiority was mirrored by the air war over the sea as the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica attempted to cut off sea traffic supplying the defenders. Web. The garrison on the east side of the Tobruk defences was strengthened in case of a sortie and a German counter-attack recovered Musaid. The fighters of 274 Squadron stayed at Gerawla and 6 Squadron remained at Tobruk to fly tactical reconnaissance sorties. The 70th Infantry Division attack surprised Rommel, who had underestimated the size of the garrison and number of tanks in Tobruk. [3][4] German engines tended to overheat and tank engine life fell from 1,400–1,600 mi (2,300–2,600 km) to 300–900 mi (480–1,450 km), which was made worse by the lack of standard parts for German and Italian types. Tobruk could take about 1,500 long tons (1,524 t) per day but lack of shipping made its capture irrelevant. This ariel bombardment was followed by artillery firing a total of 15,000shells. The Axis siege of Tobruk began on 10 April, when the port was attacked by a force under Generalleutnant Erwin Rommel and continued during three relief attempts, Operation Brevity (15–16 May), Operation Battleaxe (15–17 June) and Operation Crusader (18 November – 30 December). [40], In March, destroyers were withdrawn from the Inshore Squadron to escort convoys to Greece and in April, four more ships joined the squadron. [17], There were fewer Axis attacks on Malta from June and ships sunk increased from 19 percent in July, to 25 percent in September, when Benghazi was bombed and ships diverted to Tripoli; air supply in October made little difference. The Axis army of Italy and Germany suffered … Tobruk and El Alamein book. The battle was a offensive by the British and commonwealth and the United States of America against Italy and Germany. The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War. At the supply road they took cover, waited until 1:00 a.m. and edged forward just before the diversion by the 18th Cavalry. The battle was a offensive by the British and commonwealth and the United States of America against Italy and Germany. At the same time a company of the 2/23rd Battalion advanced across the Derna road and in a costly attack, took about 100 prisoners from the 27th Infantry Division Brescia, which led the Germans to hurry on the 15th Panzer Division from Tripoli. German losses were 678 men (Italian losses are unknown), twelve tanks and ten aircraft. The distance between Tobruk and El Alamein is 494 km. An attack by the Ju 87s sank the Latona (2,650 t) with a direct hit—though the vessel could reach 40 knots. On 6 April, Allied air reconnaissance reported that there were Axis columns in the desert and the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade repulsed an attack at Mechili, which led to O'Connor at the Cyrcom headquarters (Neame had left to visit Gambier-Parry) to order a general withdrawal. An Ancient Greek agricultural colony, Antipyrgus (Ancient Greek: Αντίπυργος) was once on the site of modern Tobruk, and the ancient name is still occasionally in use. The tide turned in the Allies' favour at the Second Battle of El Alamein in 1942. [54], The Commandos advanced at 11:00 p.m. on the night of 17/18 July and crossed the Italian lines undetected. In May-June, the victory at Ain-el-Gazzala led to the fall of Tobruk, which seemed to open the gates of Egypt. At the end of 15 June only 48 British tanks remained operational and next day, a German counter-attack forced back the Allies on the western flank but was repulsed in the centre; the Allies were reduced to 21 Cruiser tanks and 17 Infantry tanks. The battle of El Alamein was the largest tank battle of the war and the siege of Tobruk showed the resilience of the allied forces. Libyan losses were 184 killed and German casualties for the same period were about 538 killed, 1,657 wounded, about 681 missing and from 74–150 Axis aircraft shot down. Rommel decided to abandon Tobruk and withdraw to Gazala, which led to the relief of Tobruk and the occupation of Cyrenaica. [32] Of stated losses from 10 April—14 May [excluding claims made by either side], 73 Squadron lost 15 fighters and five damaged. (The 18th Australian Infantry Brigade had arrived from Egypt by sea after the dispatch of the 7th Australian Division to Greece had been cancelled.) Download books for free. The destroyer Hero was badly damaged in the same attack. German infantry would press forward to reconnoitre the vicinity of Fort Pilastrino, to see if the attack could continue to the harbour. The 3rd Indian Motor Brigade (Brigadier E. W. D. Vaughan) arrived in late March, with lorries but no tanks, artillery, anti-tank guns and only half its wireless sets; the brigade was based at Martuba, ready to use its vehicles to move towards Derna, Barce or Mechili. Battle of TObruk and the seige of El Alamein. 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